These layers are the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere and the thermosphere. A further region, beginning about 500 km above the Earth’s surface, is called the exosphere. What are the 5 major spheres? The five systems of Earth (geosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere) interact to produce the environments we are familiar with. What is
Ammonites lived all around the world. Like their modern-day cephalopod relations, they were exclusively ocean-dwelling. They tended to live in more shallow seas and may have had a maximum depth of about 400 metres. When did Ammonite live on Earth? Ammonites lived during the periods of Earth history known as the Jurassic and Cretaceous. Together,
Subsidence – sinking of the ground because of underground material movement—is most often caused by the removal of water, oil, natural gas, or mineral resources out of the ground by pumping, fracking, or mining activities. What are effects of ground subsidence? Subsidence causes permanent inundation of land, aggravates flooding, changes topographic gradients, ruptures the land
Definition of taphonomy : the study of the processes (such as burial, decay, and preservation) that affect animal and plant remains as they become fossilized also : the processes themselves. What is taphonomy in anthropology? The term taphonomy was originally used to refer to the processes through which organic remains mineralize, also known as fossilization.
Kostal Cone is made of fragmented and solidified lava called cinder and its summit contains a bowl-shaped crater. Kostal’s cinders were ejected by lava fountain eruptions and accumulated around the volcano’s vent in the shape of a cone when they fell back around its surroundings. How is a volcanic cone created? They are built from
The Appalachian Mountains start between southeastern Canada, and Maine in the Untied States, and finish in central Alabama. During colonial America, the mountain range acted as a barrier separating the East Coast colonies from the Midwest frontier. Why are the Appalachian Mountains important? The mountains have played an important role in the history and economic
Permineralization is one of the ways in which a plant or animal can be turned into a fossil. During this process, mineral rich water seeps into the void spaces of an organism, leaving deposits of minerals behind that slowly build up, creating a cast of the organism. What occurs in permineralization? Permineralization, a type of
What does normally graded bedding indicate? Normally graded beds generally represent depositional environments which decrease in transport energy (rate of flow) as time passes, but these beds can also form during rapid depositional events. What is the difference between graded bedding and cross-bedding? What is the difference between cross-bedding and graded bedding? Cross-bedding occurs when
The rocks that make up Earth’s mantle are mostly silicates—a wide variety of compounds that share a silicon and oxygen structure. Common silicates found in the mantle include olivine, garnet, and pyroxene. The other major type of rock found in the mantle is magnesium oxide. What is found in the lower mantle? Silicon and magnesium
Freezing, drying and encasement, such as in tar or resin, can create whole-body fossils that preserve bodily tissues. These fossils represent the organisms as they were when living, but these types of fossils are very rare. Most organisms become fossils when they’re changed through various other means. What are 5 ways organisms can be preserved?