Why are upwellings important to ocean ecosystems?Geology
Upwelling brings those lost/sunk nutrients back to the surface, which creates “blooms” of algae and zooplankton, which feed on those nutrients. These blooms then become feeding grounds for plankton feeders, then fish, etc, sustaining ocean life that lives near the surface.
What do upwellings bring to the surface of the ocean?
Upwelling occurs when surface waters diverge (move apart), enabling upward movement of water. Upwelling brings water to the surface that is enriched with nutrients important for primary productivity (algal growth) that in turn supports richly productive marine ecosystems.
Why are upwellings and downwelling’s important for marine environments?
They move water and heat around the globe, and help determine the chemical make-up of the water column. Currents also are a major factor in ocean ecosystems. Two types of current motion, upwelling and downwelling, strongly influence the distribution and abundance of marine life.
How does coastal upwelling affect ecosystems?
This increase in abundance of organisms at the lowest level of the marine food web allows for the consumers higher up in the food web to obtain the food and energy that they need to thrive. This is the reason for large populations of marine mammals and sea birds, as well as the abundant fisheries in this region.
How do upwellings affect phytoplankton growth?
How do upwellings affect phytoplankton growth? The upward movement of this deep, colder water is called upwelling. The deeper water that rises to the surface during upwelling is rich in nutrients. These nutrients “fertilize” surface waters, encouraging the growth of plant life, including phytoplankton.
How do upwellings affect productivity and food chains?
Effects of Upwelling
Because the deep water brought to the surface is often rich in nutrients, coastal upwelling supports the growth of seaweed and plankton. These, in turn, provide food for fish, marine mammals, and birds. Upwelling generates some of the world’s most fertile ecosystems.
How do upwellings work?
Upwelling occurs when winds push surface water away from the shore and deeper water rises to fill the gap. During upwelling, wind-displaced surface waters are replaced by cold, nutrient-rich water that wells up from below.
How does coastal upwelling enhance fish populations?
Areas of coastal upwelling have a greater supply of nutrients to support animal life. Wide continental shelves provide excellent locations for large populations too. Name an area of the world in which the ocean is rich with food resources but where those resources are not extensively harvested.
What happens to this cold Upwelled water during an El Nino event?
During normal conditions, upwelling brings water from the depths to the surface; this water is cold and nutrient rich. During El Niño, upwelling weakens or stops altogether. Without the nutrients from the deep, there are fewer phytoplankton off the coast.
Where do upwellings occur in El Niño?
During El Niño, upwelling of cooler oceanic water decreases along the S. American coast. What typically happens is that the trade winds move from S. America to Asia/Australia, and warm surface water is dragged away from the coast and colder, nutrient water rises to shallow depths.
What are the different effects of El Niño and La Niña?
El Niño and La Niña affect not only ocean temperatures, but also how much it rains on land. Depending on which cycle occurs (and when), this can mean either droughts or flooding. Typically, El Niño and its warm waters are associated with drought, while La Niña is linked to increased flooding.
What effects are there on Pacific sea life and productivity during El Niño?
An El Niño reduces the upwelling of cold water off the coast of the Americas. When this happens, fish either die or migrate into areas where they’ll find more to eat. With the fish gone, sea birds that depend on them may die or go elsewhere. Kelp forests are often destroyed by storms and ocean swells.
How does El Niño affect ecosystems?
Ecosystems and human communities can be positively or negatively affected. For example, in the Southern United States, during the fall through spring, El Niño usually causes increased rainfall and sometimes destructive flooding.
How does El Niño affect ecosystem distribution?
In the northern hemisphere, El Niño events typically result in observations of tropical, warm water species moving north (thereby extending their range). Cold water species move north or into deeper water (thereby restricting their range). Surface-oriented, schooling fish often disperse and move into deeper waters.
What is the impact of El Niño event on ocean productivity?
Every 2–7 years, El Niño events trigger a strong decrease in phytoplankton productivity off Peru, which profoundly alters the environmental landscape and trophic chain of the marine ecosystem.
What are the effects of El Niño in the Pacific Northwest?
The effects of a strong El Nino include a wetter and cooler than normal winter season in the southern United States, though the Pacific Northwest states tend to be warmer. Along the equatorial Pacific, conditions tend to warmer and wetter. Parts of southern Africa tend to be drier and warmer along with southeast Asia.
What two things are changing in the Pacific Ocean to cause an El Niño event?
Weak winds allow warm surface waters to build up in the eastern Pacific. Sometimes, but not always, the atmosphere responds to this warming with increased rising air motion and above-average rainfall in the eastern Pacific. This coordinated change in both ocean temperatures and the atmosphere begins an El Niño event.
What is the effect of the presence of El Niño in the western Pacific Ocean?
During an El Niño event, sea surface temperatures over the central and eastern Pacific become warmer than normal. The normal easterly trade winds weaken and sometimes, the winds will switch and blow from the west to the east!
Why is it important to know when an El Niño occurs?
This warming of the ocean causes major changes to typical global atmospheric circulation patterns. In other words, El Niño creates a domino effect—and this often triggers or intensifies weather extremes all over the world.
What are the effects of El Niño in California and across the southern states?
In general, the effect of El Niño on California is increased rainfall with accompanying floods, landslides, and coastal erosion. The effects are variable across the state and are more predictable in Southern California. Diminished upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water upon which phytoplankton depend.
How does El Niño affect the economies of Ecuador and Peru?
Rainfall increases drastically in Ecuador and northern Peru, contributing to coastal flooding and erosion. Rains and floods may destroy homes, schools, hospitals, and businesses. They also limit transportation and destroy crops. As El Niño brings rain to South America, it brings droughts to Indonesia and Australia.
What effects would El Niño most likely have on organisms?
El Niño would cause changes in the genetic makeup of organisms. El Niño would cause continents to move to different parts of the planet. El Niño would cause organisms to move in search of food and better conditions.
How does El Niño affect Ecuador?
For the peoples of Indonesia, Australia and South Eastern Africa, the El Niño phenomenon delivers severe droughts, which can result in devastating forest fires. The inhabitants of Peru, Ecuador and California will associate the effect with torrential rain storms that trigger serve flooding and deadly mudslides.
How does El Niño impact fisheries on the west coast of South America?
When this warm water builds up in the western Pacific-Ocean, nutrient-rich cold waters are forced to rise up from the deeper ocean just off of the west coast of South America. This colder nutrient-rich water fosters the growth of the fish population. During an El Niño event the trade winds weaken.
Why does the fishing industry watch for upwellings eagerly?
Why does the fishing industry watch for upwellings eagerly? Due to the fact that the Upwelling brings all of the nutrients and food for the fish to the surface which is where all the fish will be feeding.
What impact does El Niño have on the fishing industry quizlet?
– local fishing industry suffers , worlds largest fishery collapsed in 1792 due to el nino. what are the economic affects of el nino . -reduction in upwelling led to fish kills off the coast of peru.
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