Category: Earth science

What are the reaction mechanisms for singlet oxygen in the atmosphere?

Asked by: Robby Filippi What process produces singlet oxygen? photosensitization In solution, the singlet oxygen is often prepared by a process called photosensitization. A photosensitizer is irradiated to its singlet excited state, followed by conversion (called intersystem crossing) to its triplet excited state. Why is singlet oxygen so reactive? Because of differences in their electron

Radius of Influence – groundwater pump well

Asked by: Widi Brady What is the radius of influence of the pumping well? In this work, the radius of influence of a pumping well is qualitatively defined as the maximum distance from the well up to which the influence of pumping is significant (Fig. 1a). What is the radius of influence? The “Radius of

Is it theoretically possible to artificially create amber?

Asked by: Widi Brady Yes, and this has been done since at least the mid 19th century (Răducanu, 2006) initially it was done to keep up with the demand, but now is a source of scrutiny for valuation of samples (Pederson and Williams, 2011; Răducanu, 2006). Imitations have been produced by heating the following (Răducanu,

How/where is randomness/stochasticity used in weather prediction

Asked by: Angie Davenport Which algorithm is best for weather prediction? Recurrent Neural Networks are the best way for multivariate weather forecasting or prediction. Neural network with data processing is suitable for weather forecasting. Neural network can take different features as input variables to find nonlinear relationship between input and output. How are simulators used

What happens when the North and South poles flip?

Asked by: Angie Davenport But the reality is that: Multiple magnetic fields would fight each other. This could weaken Earth’s protective magnetic field by up to 90% during a polar flip. Earth’s magnetic field is what shields us from harmful space radiation which can damage cells, cause cancer, and fry electronic circuits and electrical grids.

Would hurricanes on an ocean planet continue indefinitely?

Asked by: Kim Hill How does a hurricane sustain itself over ocean? A hurricane builds energy as it moves across the ocean, sucking up warm, moist tropical air from the surface and dispensing cooler air aloft. Think of this as the storm breathing in and out. The hurricane escalates until this “breathing” is disrupted, like

Derive Reference Potential Evapotranspiration from Potential Evapotranspiration

Asked by: Kim Hill How is reference evapotranspiration calculated? where ETo = reference evapotranspiration rate (mm d-1), T = mean air temperature (°C), and u2 = wind speed (m s-1) at 2 m above the ground. Equation 3 can be applied using hourly data if the constant value “900” is divided by 24 for the

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